Many of us cannot remember a time when antibiotics were not around. Omnipresent in clinical settings, antibiotics have been playing crucial and diversified roles in medicine ever since the discovery of penicillin. It is not to anyone’s surprise, therefore, that bacterial resistance to this class of drugs has been described as “almost as big, if not bigger, than climate change,” and even as “the end of modern medicine.” To understand the scope of the issue, we must first tackle the questions of why bacteria develop resistance, how the overuse of antibiotics is changing the evolutionary landscape of microbes, and what is being done about it, both in Canada and around the world. Understanding A
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